Cacatua moluccensis
cockatoom port1

Family

  • Cacatuidae

Lifespan

  • 65-80 years

Size

  • Length: 19-20 inches
  • Weight: 2 lbs

Range

  • Found in Indonesian Islands (Sapaura, Haruku, and Ceram). 
  • Breeding populations are only found on Ceram.

Habitat

  • They live in dense lowland forests and wooded mountain slopes. Moluccans make their nests in hollow trees, using woodchips for bedding.

Diet

  • Wild: Herbivorous, eating seeds, fruits, nuts, and berries
  • Zoo: Parrot chow, fruits, nuts, and vegetables. Receive seeds and nuts for treats.

Reproduction

  • There are 2-6 eggs in each clutch with an incubation period of 29-30 days.

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  • Both parents take turns incubating the eggs.
  • After the eggs hatch, there is a fledging period of approximately 3 months.
  • Young Moluccans receive constant attention from their both of their parents which includes: preening, protection, cuddling, instruction and reassurance.

General Information

  • Habitat destruction due to heavy logging in Indonesia has threatened the Moluccan Cockatoo.
  • Moluccans are flock animals with well defended flock rules, schedules and a hierarchy which each bird learns as they mature.
  • These birds can mimic the sounds of other animals including people. They are also known for their ear-splitting calls. When cornered or aroused they may make a hissing noise. Moluccan cockatoos also communicate with their movement and feather positions.
  • Moluccans take advantage of the wet foliage in the treetops by fluttering through it for a bath.

Interesting Facts

  • The oldest Moluccan on record lived to be 125 years old – owned by a family in England.
  • In the 17th century Moluccans were seen as a “religious icon.” In those days it was assumed that only humans could speak, so when pet cockatoos began to mimic, it was believe that God must be talking through them.
  • Moluccans have a water-proof dust coating their feathers, and sometimes hang upside down during rainstorms to take baths.
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Conservation status

  • IUCN: Vulnerable
  • CITES: Appendix I
  • Common in the pet trade, illegal capture and exportation of these and other tropical parrots is still a major problem with wild populations today
    • Approximately 70-80% of animals illegally transported over borders for the pet trade die either en route or shortly after arrival.  The United States is one of the top destinations for these birds and other illegally transported animals. 
  • Deforestation in Indonesia is a common threat to these animals, destroying nesting and feeding sites, often killing nest-bound young in the process

Sources

  1. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  2. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org
  3. World Parrot Trust. Accessed December 2012. www.parrots.org
  4. Audobon. Bird: The Definitive Visual Guide. New York, New York. DK Publishing. 2007.

Cyanoliseus patagonus patagonus
conure fb

Family

  • Psittacidae

Lifespan

  • 35 years

Size

  • Length: 15 - 20 inches

  • Weight: 9 - 11 oz

Range

  • South Argentina and Chile

  • In winter their range extends to Central Argentina and South Uruguay

Habitat

  • Rocky coastline with cliffs

  • Grassy or Farmland areas
  • Arid land near water

Diet

  • Wild

    • seeds, nuts, fruit, and grain crops

  • Zoo

    • parrot show, fruit, corn

Reproduction

conure fall2

  • There are usually 3 - 5 eggs per cluthc, laid once a year, with an incubation period around 30 days.
  • Eggs laid on dust and dead wood in large hole. Some nest in cactus plants.
  • Male assumes parental role while young develop.
  • Babies are born naked, and around three weeks old they begin to develop real feathers. At this stage, the feathers look like pins and are thus called "pinfeathers."

General Info

  • Males and females easily distinguishable among most parrots. Males are usually more colorful, but some parts of the world the female parrots can be as brightly colored as the males. The bright colors help hide them from predators.

  • They are social animals and there can be more than a thousand parrots in a single flock.
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Conservation status

  • IUCN: Least Concern
  • CITES: Appendix II
  • Common in the pet trade, illegal capture and exportation of these and other tropical parrots is still a major problem with wild populations today

    • Approximately 70-80% of animals illegally transported over borders for the pet trade die either en route or shortly after arrival.  The United States is one of the top destinations for these birds and other illegally transported animals.  

Sources

  1. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  2. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org
 

Bos taurusJersey Cow

Family

  • Bovidae

Lifespan

  • 20-25 years

Size

  • Height:
  • Weight: Males: 1200-1800 pounds, Females: 800-1200 pounds

Origin

  • Jersey cattle originate from the Island of Jersey, a small British island in the English channel near the French coastline

Habitat

  • Only found in captivity, this animal can graze in fields and grasslands

Diet

  • Wild:  Not found in the wild; cattle ancestors would have eaten grasses and similar plant matter
  • Zoo:  Hay and high fiber grain in cold weather or for treats

Reproduction

  • Jersey heifers can be bred as early as 13 months of age. A single calf is typical after a gestation of about 9-10 months. The Jersey calf is small compared to other breeds, weighing on average 60 pounds at birth. The calf will quickly gain weight as it nurses on the protein–rich milk, doubling its weight in less than 2 months.

Special adaptations

  • Cattle are ruminant digesters and process food through a 4-chambered stomach. This adaptation allows them to leech as many nutrients from their food as possible, which in turn allows ruminants to be able to survive in places where non-ruminant herbivores could not live. They also do not have to consume as much food to supply their bodies with energy.
  • Cattle tongues are extremely long – they lick their interior nasal cavities to increase the amount of good bacteria in their digestive tract, which help break down the course matter in their diet.

Facts/info

  • Jerseys are one of the most popular dairy cattle breeds
  • The cow on Borden sweetened condensed milk cans (Elsie) is a Jersey
  • The bull head on Elmer’s glue is a Jersey
  • Ruminants usually do not have upper incisors or canines, just a rough pad on the roof of their mouths
  • Cattle are considered to be the most important livestock animal and are among the most populous domestic animal
  • Our Jersey, Andy, is a fixed male – known as a steer
  • Andy is very gentle and comfortable around his keepers

Conservation status

  • IUCN: Not Evaluated
  • CITES: Not Listed
  • Although domestic cattle are not threatened, there are 5 Bovid species which are in need of protections:
    • Bos gaurus (Gaur)
      • IUCN: Vulnerable
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in India, China, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia
    • Bos javanicus (Banteng)
      • IUCN: Endangered
      • CITES: Not Listed
      • Found in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and sporadically in Indonesia.  Small population introduced to Australia
    • Bos mutus (Wild Yak)
      • IUCN: Vulnerable
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in China.  Historically found in China and India.  Believed to be extinct in all countries except China
    • Bos sauveli (Grey Ox/Kouprey)
      • IUCN: Critically Endangered
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in Cambodia and southern Laos
    • Bubalus arnee (Indian Water Buffalo)
      • IUCN: Endangered
      • CITES: Appendix III
      • Found in India, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia; all extremely fragmented

Sources:

  1. American Jersey Cattle Association. Ed Zirkle. 9 November 2011. American Jersey Cattle Association. 13 November 2011 www.usjersey.com
  2. Jersey. 12 December 1997. Oklahoma State University. 13 November 2011 http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/cattle/jersey/
  3. Feldhamer, George A. et al., Mammalogy: Adaptation, diversity, and ecology. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
  4. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  5. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org

Jersey Cow

Equus caballus caballusMiniature Horse

Family

  • Equidae

Lifespan

  • 30+ years

Size

  • Height:  36 inches or less at the withers (shoulder)
  • Weight:  150-250 pounds

Origin

  • These tiny equids descend from the same ancestor as standard horses, the wild horse (Tarpan). The tarpan became extinct in the early 1900's. The tarpans range was thought to include north eastern Africa, Central Asia and the Middle East, extending through Mongolia.
  • There is conflicting data about where specifically this breed originated

Habitat

  • Ancient horses were found in short grasslands and desert scrubland

DietMiniature Horses

  • Wild:  Wild grasses
  • Zoo:  Alfalfa/Timothy hay mix and occasional horse treats

Reproduction

  • Young become sexually mature around 2 years of age. A single foal is born after a gestation period of 11 months. Foals may graze as early as one month old, but will not become fully weaned until 8-13 months old. A mature female is called a mare. An intact mature male is called a stallion or stud. Castrated males are known as geldings. Female young are fillies, while male young are colts. A juvenile of either sex may be called a foal.

Special adaptations

  • Modern horses (including their wild counterparts) have gone through many skeletal changes, including the fusion of several bones into one – the cannon bone. The cannon bone is a combination of several bones and is located in the horses’ leg.
  • Because of their high intelligence, small stature and long life spans, miniature horses have recently been incorporated in programs for leading the blind
  • Horses can turn their ears independently to capture sounds from all angles (and determine if predators are in the area). Their ears are specially shaped like a funnel to direct sounds where they can be interpreted best.

Facts/infoMiniature Horse

  • Horses are one of the least changed domestic species from its wild ancestor
  • Horse coats can come in several patterns and colors
  • Although horse hooves look big, they are essentially walking on the nail of one of their "fingers"
  • Unlike their wild ancestors, horses manes lay down on one side of their neck and do not shed annually
  • Miniature horses cannot support much weight for a rider, but can pull more than two times their weight!
  • Horses are social by nature and our two minis are extremely attached to each other – they will call to each other if they are ever separated

Conservation status

    • Domestic – not listed
    • There are 3 Equid species which are in need of protection
    • Przewalski's Horse (Mongolian Wild Horse)

 

  • African Wild Ass
  • Asiatic Wild Ass (Onager or Kulan)

 

Sources

  1. Feldhamer, George A. et al., Mammalogy: Adaptation, diversity, and ecology. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
  2. American Miniature Horse Association. November, 2011 www.amha.org
  3. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  4. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012.  www.iucnredlist.org
Miniature Horses summer vs. winter coats
 

Bos tauruscow holstein 2

Family

  • Bovidae

Lifespan

  • Lifespan may exceed 20 years but it is limited by human culling

Size

  • Height: 58-60 inches at shoulder
  • Weight: 1500-2000 pounds

Habitat

  • Only found in captivity, this animal can graze in fields and grasslands

Diet

  • In the wild: Not found in the wild; cattle ancestors would have eaten grasses and similar plant matter
  • At the zoo: Hay and high fiber grain in cold weather or for treats

Reproduction

  • 1-2 young are born after a gestation of 9 months.
  • Holstein heifers (young female cattle that have not yet been bred) can be bred as young as 15 months old but the ideal age to first breed a female is between 24 and 27 months

Special adaptationscow holstein

  • Cattle are ruminant digesters and process food through a 4-chambered stomach. This adaptation allows them to leech as many nutrients from their food as possible, which in turn allows ruminants to be able to survive in places where non-ruminant herbivores could not live. They also do not have to consume as much food to supply their bodies with energy.
  • Cattle tongues are extremely long – they lick their interior nasal cavities to increase the amount of good bacteria in their digestive tract, which help break down the course matter in their diet.

Interesting facts

  • This breed originated in the Netherlands about 2000 years ago
  • Holsteins are one of the most easily recognizable dairy cows in the world
  • Cutie Pie, our resident Holstein, loves attention and people. She can almost always be found at her fence line waiting to greet visitors!
  • Ruminants usually do not have upper incisors or canines, just a rough pad on the roof of their mouths
  • Cattle are considered to be the most important livestock animal and are among the most populous domestic animal
  • There are over 9 million dairy cows in the U.S., with approximately 90% of them being of Holstein decent
  • Holstein cows give more milk than any other dairy breed in the U.S.
  • The average Holstein cow produces around 23,000 pounds of milk, or 2,674 gallons, of milk each lactation. With a standard lactation lasting 305 days, that comes out to 75 pounds, or almost 9 gallons of milk per cow per day

Conservation status

  • CITES –Not Listed
  • IUCN –Not Evaluated

Sources

  1. Animal Diversity Web. Accessed February, 2016. http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Bos_taurus/
  2. Appendices I, II, and III of CITES. (February 5, 2015) Accessed January 2016. http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.php
  3. Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed January 2016. http://www.eol.org/pages/328699/details
  4. Holstein USA.com. Facts about Holstein Cattle. Accessed February, 2016. http://www.holsteinusa.com/holstein_breed/holstein101.html
  5. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (2015) Accessed January 2016. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/search

cow holstein winter