Bos taurusHolstein Cow

Family

  • Bovidae

Lifespan

  • 6 years*

Size

  • Height:  58-60 inches at shoulder
  • Weight:  1500-2000 pounds

Origin

  • This breed originated in the Netherlands about 2000 years ago

Habitat

  • Only found in captivity, this animal can graze in fields and grasslands

Diet

  • Wild:  Not found in the wild; cattle ancestors would have eaten grasses and similar plant matter
  • Zoo:  Hay and high fiber grain in cold weather or for treats

Reproduction

  • Holstein heifers (young female cattle that have not yet been bred) can be bred as young as 15 months old but the ideal age to first breed a female is between 24 and 27 months. 1-2 young are born after a gestation of 9 months.

Special adaptations

  • Cattle are ruminant digesters and process food through a 4-chambered stomach. This adaptation allows them to leech as many nutrients from their food as possible, which in turn allows ruminants to be able to survive in places where non-ruminant herbivores could not live. They also do not have to consume as much food to supply their bodies with energy.
  • Cattle tongues are extremely long – they lick their interior nasal cavities to increase the amount of good bacteria in their digestive tract, which help break down the course matter in their diet.

Facts/info

  • Holsteins are one of the most easily recognizable dairy cows in the world
  • Cutie Pie, our resident Holstein, loves attention and people. She can almost always be found at her fence line waiting to greet visitors!
  • Ruminants usually do not have upper incisors or canines, just a rough pad on the roof of their mouths
  • Cattle are considered to be the most important livestock animal and are among the most populous domestic animal

Conservation status

  • IUCN: Not evaluated
  • CITES: Not Listed
  • Although domestic cattle are not threatened, there are 5 Bovid species which are in need of protections:
    • Bos gaurus (Gaur)
      • IUCN: Vulnerable
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in India, China, Myanmar, Bhutan, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia
    • Bos javanicus (Banteng)
      • IUCN: Endangered
      • CITES: Not Listed
      • Found in Myanmar, Cambodia, Thailand, and sporadically in Indonesia.  Small population introduced to Australia
    • Bos mutus (Wild Yak)
      • IUCN: Vulnerable
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in China.  Historically found in China and India.  Believed to be extinct in all countries except China
    • Bos sauveli (Grey Ox/Kouprey)
      • IUCN: Critically Endangered
      • CITES: Appendix I
      • Found in Cambodia and southern Laos
    • Bubalus arnee (Indian Water Buffalo)
      • IUCN: Endangered
      • CITES: Appendix III
      • Found in India, Nepal, Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia; all extremely fragmented

*It is likely they can live much longer, but most owners do not keep cattle past prime production, which is around 6 years.

Sources

  1. Feldhamer, George A. et al., Mammalogy: Adaptation, diversity, and ecology. 2nd edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2004.
  2. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  3. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. www.iucnredlist.org

Holstein Cow

Anas platyrhynchos Campbell Ducks

Family

  • Anatidae

Lifespan

  • Around 10 years with good care

Size

  • Around 4 pounds

Origin

  • This breed originated in the late 1800’s in Gloucestershire, England.

Habitat

  • Domestic; no real habitat but prefer areas near calm water

Diet

  • Waterfowl chow and greens
  • Can be seen foraging under water for aquatic vegetation and bugs

Reproduction

  • Female Campbell ducks are reported to be excellent egg-layers. Females will lay their first eggs at 5-7 months old. After incubation time of around 28 days the ducklings will hatch. Ducklings are covered in downy feathers and are not waterproof and can easily drown, but will swim following their mother. Ducks are social and can live in large flocks.

Special adaptationsCampbell Duck butt

  • Ducks are specially suited to live near the water. They have webbed feet which can propel them swiftly through the water, and flattened bills to strain out materials from the water to eat.

Facts/info

  • Domestic ducks are too large to fly, but wild ducks are able to migrate
  • Males often have a curled feather at the tip of their tail

Conservation status

  • IUCN: Not Evaluated
  • CITES: Not Listed

Sources

  1. Campbell Duck. 1993. Accessed November 2011 http://www.albc-usa.org/cpl/waterfowl/campbell.html
  2. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  3. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org
Campbell Duck

 

Gallus gallus chicken do2

Family

  • Phasianidae

Lifespan

  • 8-10 years

Size

  • Weight Male:  7 lbs
  • Weight Female: 5 lbs

Origin

  • Domestic chickens are bred in many places
  • All domestic chickens are descendents of the Red Jungle Fowl

Habitat

  • A hearty breed that can survive as both free range and confined, in hot and humid climates

Diet

  • Wild: Omnivore, eating seeds and insects
  • Zoo:  Mazuri brand Gamebird chow and greens

Reproduction

  • Chickens lay eggs like all birds.
  • Known for their egg laying abilities, a Dominique Chicken can lay 203 to 275 eggs a year
  • Chickens reach sexual maturity around 18 months.
  • Clutch size can vary depending on breed, age, health, and nutrition.
    • Newly hatched chicks are moist and covered in downy feathers.
    • Chicks will flock near their mother for protection until reaching adult size.

Special adaptationschicken do1

  • Chickens have a comb and waddle, red skin flaps on the top of their head and under their beak, which help dissipate heat
  • Roosters will have a larger comb and waddle which are a form of ornamentation.  Roosters with larger combs and waddles tend to appear more attractive to hens
  • Some bantam chicken breeds are considered a "fancy chicken" and will have ornamental feathers surrounding their feet

Facts/info

  • Domestic chickens are too large to fly, but can glide and perch on tall objects
  • Chickens love the occasional worm or bug and will scratch at the ground in hopes of uncovering a tasty treat
  • It is believed that the breed name may have come from its origins in St. Domingue, now Haiti, where the breed may have obtained some of its origins

Conservation status

  • IUCN: Not Evaluated
  • CITES: Not Listed
  • The American Livestock Breeds Conservancy (ALBC) has this breed listed on conservation WATCH.
  • As a domestic species, the chicken is not listed under protective status

Sources

  1. Henderson, John R. Henderson’s Handy Dandy Chicken Chart. Accessed November 29, 2009 http://www.ithaca.edu/staff/jhenderson/chooks/chooks.html
  2. Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758). Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed November 29, 2009 http://www.eol.org/pages/1049263
  3. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  4. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org
  5. Slow Food USA. Accessed August 18, 2012. www.slowfoodusa.org/index.php/programs/ark_product_detail/dominique_chicken/

 

 

Gallus gallus domesticusBantam chicken

Family

  • Phasianidae

Lifespan

  • Up to 20 years in captivity

Size

  • Height: 4-7 inches
  • Weight:  16-25 ounces

Origin

  • Domestic chickens are bred in many places
  • All domestic chickens are descendents of the Red Jungle Fowl

Habitat

  • Domestic breed only, not found in the wild

Diet

  • Zoo:  Mazuri brand Gamebird chow and greens

Reproduction

  • Chickens lay eggs like all birds.
  • Chickens reach sexual maturity around 18 months.
  • Clutch size can vary depending on breed, age, health, and nutrition.
    • After 21-30 days the chicks will make their way out of the shell.
    • Newly hatched chicks are moist and covered in downy feathers.
    • Within 4-5 weeks the chicks should be fully feathered.
    • Chicks will flock near their mother for protection until reaching adult size.

Special adaptationsBantam Chicken and rooster

  • Chickens have a comb and waddle, red skin flaps on the top of their head and under their beak, which help dissipate heat
  • Roosters will have a larger comb and waddle which are a form of ornamentation.  Roosters with larger combs and waddles tend to appear more attractive to hens
  • Some bantam chicken breeds are considered a "fancy chicken" and will have ornamental feathers surrounding their feet

Facts/info

  • Domestic chickens are too large to fly, but can glide and perch on tall objects
  • Chickens love the occasional worm or bug and will scratch at the ground in hopes of uncovering a tasty treat
  • Today bantam chickens are mostly used for show or kept as a hobby
  • True bantams are breeds that do not have a full size counterpart
  • There are several color variations (breeds) of Bantam Chickens.  At the zoo we have a bantam Leghorn, bantam Porcelain Mille Fleure Barbu D'Uccle, and bantam Sebright

Conservation status

  • IUCN: Not Evaluated
  • CITES: Not Listed
  • As a domestic species, the chicken is not listed under protective status

Sources

  1. Henderson, John R. Henderson’s Handy Dandy Chicken Chart. Accessed November 29, 2009 http://www.ithaca.edu/staff/jhenderson/chooks/chooks.html
  2. Gallus gallus (Linnaeus, 1758). Encyclopedia of Life. Accessed November 29, 2009 http://www.eol.org/pages/1049263
  3. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  4. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org

 

 

Lama pacosAlpaca Rose

Family

  • Camelidae

Lifespan

  • Up to 20 years

Size

  • Height - Up to 4 feet at the shoulders
  • Weight - 120-145 pounds

Origin

  • Peru, Western Bolivia, Northern Chile along the Andes Mountain chain
    • However, there are no wild Alpacas

Habitat

  • Mountains, grasslands, plateaus, and shrub lands

Diet

  • Wild - Grasses, herbs, shrubs, lichens, and other plant matter
  • Zoo - Mazuri llama chow and hay

Reproduction

  • The alpaca bears 1 young after an 11-month gestation period. Alpacas breed every other year.

Special adaptations

  • The blood of Camelids, including the Alpaca, is especially efficient in carrying oxygen, which is less abundant in the high altitudes of their habitat. In fact, members of the camel family are the only mammals that have oval red blood cells for this purpose.
  • Thick wool enables the alpaca to survive below-freezing temperatures.
  • Alpacas (and other American Camelids) walk on pads at the end of their toes instead of their hooves, which makes it easier for them to travel over rocky or sandy ground.

Facts/info

  • The mouth has a divided upper lip and continuously growing teeth, allowing the alpaca to graze on tough grasses.
  • Alpacas are ruminants, meaning they re-chew their food after it has passed through some of the three chambers of their stomach before digesting it again. This process allows them to get the maximum nutrients from their food.
  • Alpacas have been domesticated for over 2,000 years. They were first bred by the Incas in about 500 B.C., and used for their milk, wool, meat and skin. Alpaca wool is still highly prized today.

Conservation status

  • IUCN: Not Evaluated
  • CITES: Not listed

Sources

  1. CITES Appendices. Accessed December 2012. www.cites.org
  2. IUCN Red List of Endangered Species. Accessed December 2012. www.iucnredlist.org